Initial Operational Capability (IOC):
Also Known As: Lada and Sankt Peterburg
Corporations: Admiralty Shipyards
Parent System: Project 677
Initial Operational Capability (IOC):
Family Members: Amur 950
Description: The Project 677 or Lada-class submarines have been designed to engage surface ships and submarines as well as to perform surveillance, mine laying, and special operations forces deployment missions. Long range anti-ship missiles, rockets, torpedoes and mines can be fired from the torpedo tubes at the bow. In addition, a highly efficient sonar system and reduced acoustic (noise) emissions will provide improved attack and survivability characteristics over preceding conventionally powered Russian/Soviet submarine classes.
The Project 677 is deemed as the follow-on to successful Project 877 and 636 (Kilo-class) submarines. Acoustic stealthiness has been a major concern in the design of the project 677. According to Rubin, the ship features a new efficient antisonar coating of the hull. The capability to engage multiple targets simultaneously using advanced missiles rather than torpedoes, its large endurance and cruising range, and its suitability for open ocean and shallow waters make the more lethal conventional submarines ever built.
The entire ship has been automated to facilitate operations managing them from submarine's main control room. An Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system based on oxygen-hydrogen fuel cells is being offered for Amur-class submarines as option to achieve extended immersion endurance. The new diesel-electric propulsion system is arranged in a modular compartment which can be plugged into the basic submarine. A radio electronic equipment of a new generation, variable-speed permanent-magnet propulsion motor and storage battery with increased service life are provided to the 4th generation Russian non-nuclear submarine.
The Amur designation is applied for boats of the same class intended for the export market. The sonar complex is outfitted with a highly sensitive passive array, the area of which exceeds the area of array on the previous generation submarines by several times. The 4th generation Amur-class submarines can differ in customer requirements and operational conditions. Therefore, this means some changes in the submarine equipment and machinery such as propulsion system, sonar, etc depending on customer requests.
As of 2004, the Russian Navy remains the only Project 677 operator with a single ship on order. The Saint-Petersburg submarine, an Amur 1650-class boat, was laid down in December 1997 at Admiralty Shipyards, and despite lack of funds, was expected to enter service with the Russian Navy in the 2005-2006 timeframe. Nevertheless, the Russian Navy priority are nuclear-powered submarines with Amur/Lada-class intended for the export market and secondary missions within the Russian Navy.
The Amur 1650/Lada submarine has been designed to operate in the littoral environment, in deep water and shallow water areas, and in any climate worldwide. It features six 533mm torpedo tubes with 18 weapons between torpedoes, mines, missiles and rockets at the bow compartment. According to Russian reports, it is one of the most quiet and lethal submarines ever built. It can be outfitted with custom equipment depending on customer requirements. These ships may be fitted with vertical launch missile silos.
In June 2005 Saint-Petersburg was preparing for factory sea trials. On 28 July 2005, Rubin announced that a second Lada project submarine for the Russian Navy was laid down at FSUE Admiral Shipyards. The new submarine was named Kronshtadt and was the first production series submarine. This boat should be commissioned by 2009 or 2010. The Saint Petersburg was accepted by the Russian Navy in October 2006 to conduct sea trials. It will be officially commissioned in 2010 fitted with an advanced anti-sonar hull coating, an extended cruising range, and advanced anti-ship and anti-submarine weaponry, including Club-S cruise missile systems. These features were not available in October 2006. The Russian Navy plans call for the commissioned of eight boats replacing Kilo-class submarines in the Baltic and Black Sea fleets. In Febraury 2014, the Russian Navy announced that the Lada class attack submarines would be equippped with an air-independent ultra-quiet propulsion system beginning in 2016.
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