Molniya-M  
Initial Operational Capability (IOC): 1970
Total Production: 221
Origin: Russia
Corporations: Starsem
Parent System: Soyuz
Initial Operational Capability (IOC): 1966
Total Production: 1,834
Family Members: Soyuz-2, Soyuz-5, Soyuz-Fregat, Soyuz-Ikar and Soyuz-U
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Description: The Soyuz Launch Vehicle evolved from Soviet R-7 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) becoming a reliable and affordable space access asset for the Soviet Union and lately for Russia and international customers. Since 1966 a wide range of Soyuz models have performed more than 1,680 missions.

The Soyuz launched the first satellite and the first human into space. Currently, these vehicles are used to launch commercial and military satellites into space and for transportation of personnel and materiel to the International Space Station (ISS).

The Soyuz propulsion system consists of three stages or four stages including the upper stage. The first stage comprises four liquid oxygen and kerosene RD-107A boosters assembled around the central core. The first stage burns for 118 seconds. The second stage is located at the central core of the launch vehicle and comprises one RD-108A rocket motor that burns for 290 seconds. The third stage uses one RD-0110 motor and burns for 240 seconds.

The Molniya launch vehicle is a member of the Soyuz space launch vehicles. The four-stage Molniya-M is the current version of the Molniya launch vehicle and is intended to transport payloads deep into space to the Moon or to the planets of the Solar System. Besides, Molniya-M can place Prognoz and Molniya spacecrafts into high-elliptical near-Earth orbit. The Plesetsk Cosmodrome is entitled for the launch Molniya-M launch vehicles utilizing the same infrastructure in operation for the Soyuz-U launch vehicle. The three-stage rocket uses non-toxic liquid propellant based on oxygen and kerosene. The upper stage (fourth stage) is fueled by cryogenic liquid propellant and ignites an hour after the Molniya-M launch in zero-gravity conditions. The Molniya rocket was retired in 2010.

Molniya-M Specifications

Number of Stages: 4
Dimensions
Height: 43 meter (1,709 inch)
Rocket Diameter: 10.3 meter
Percent
Reliability: 98 %
Performance
Orbit: 40,000 kilometer (24,860 mile)
Weight
Max Lift-off Weight: 309 ton (681,217 pound)
Payload to HEO: 2,000 kilogram
CEP: Circular Error Probable
Meters (m)   Kilometers (km)   Nautic Miles (nm)   Inch (in)   Yard (yd)   Foot (ft)   Millimeter (mm)
Pound (lb)   Kilogram (kg)   kN (KiloNewton)   Ton (t)
Meters per Second (mps)   Kilometers per Hour (kph)   Knot (kt)   Miles per Hour (mph)
Liter (l)   Galon (gl)
Year (yr)   Minutes (min)   Second (sec)
Shaft-Horse-Power (shp)

Operators & Related Equipment


OperatorsItems
Russia221

Grand Total 2211
Space Systems
Kosmosx1
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